Profiles and Treatment Outcomes of Patients with Tuberculosis: A Cross-Sectional Review of DOTS Patients in Delta State, Nigeria

Godson E, Ufuoma A, Irikefe O, Kelechi O


Godson E[1], Ufuoma A[2], Irikefe O[1], Kelechi O[2]

  1. Department of Community Medicine, Delta State University Teaching Hospital, Oghara, Delta State
  2. State Tuberculosis and Leprosy Control Programme, Department of Public health, Asaba, Delta State

Corresponding author: Godson Eze


SUMMARY

Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB), the second leading cause of death among infectious diseases continues to be a major public health threat worldwide, more so in the developing world. Several strategies have been tried in the past decades to address the burden of the disease especially in low resource settings; namely: Directly Observed Therapy Short-course (DOTS), DOTS plus, and the Stop TB Strategy. Amid all these efforts, tuberculosis has developed multi-drug resistant strains (MDR) to various degrees and is now listed amongst the top re-emerging diseases in the world. The objectives of this study were to find out trend in TB case detection; age/sex distribution, new smear positive cases, identify the major type of TB, treatment outcomes, within the five-year period reviewed.

Methods: In this cross-sectional records review of years 2011-2015, secondary data was extracted from tuberculosis central registers at all sites in Delta State, Nigeria. The data was using win PEPI and EPIDATA software solutions and presented in tables and charts.

Results: There was a decline in case detection from 2011 to 2015, ages 25–34 years, was the largest proportion, while ages 0–4 years was the smallest proportion. Although males were generally more than females, the proportion of females was higher between ages 15-44. Treatment success rate improved from 68.7% in 2011 to 88.0 % in 2014. The sputum AFB positive rate was less than 60% for the first four years but spiked to above 70% in 2015. A decline in the proportion of patients lost to follow-up was observed from 2011 to 2015.

Conclusion: The Delta State Tuberculosis programme improved in case-holding. There is therefore a need for renewed public enlightenment and other strategies to improve patient compliance with the stipulations of the national tuberculosis control program.

Key Words: Tuberculosis, DOTS Treatment Outcomes, PTB, EPTB, AFB positive rate, Delta State, Nigeria

[Afr J Health Sci. 2018; 31(1):84-96]

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